Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. Electron, was the source of the word ‘electricity’. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb’s law. Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.
Laws of Electrostatics –
- Like charges of electricity repel each other, whereas unlike charges attract each other.
- According to this law, the force exerted between two point charges.
i) is directly proportional to the product of their strengths.
ii) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. and
iii) is inversely proportional to the absolute permittivity of the surrounding medium.
This is known as Coulomb’s Law.